Glossary of Terms


An appropriation is a parliamentary authorisation for the Crown or an Office of Parliament to incur expenses or capital expenditure.


For an amount, the actual incorporates the actual amount spent for the financial year.


For an amount, the budget incorporates the amount set for spending at the start of the year.

Supplementary estimates

For an amount, the supplementary estimates incorporates all changes since the budget and becomes the final amount for spending for the financial year.


For an amount, the forecast incorporates the amount that has been set for spending the coming year.


Amounts consumed or losses of service potential or future economic benefits, other than those relating to capital withdrawals, in a financial year (an accrual concept measured in accordance with generally accepted accounting practice).


Goods or services supplied by departments and other entities to external parties. Outputs are a variety of types, including policy advice, administration of contracts and grants, and the provision of specific services.

Home detention

Home detention (HD) is a sentence that requires an offender to remain at an approved residence at all times under Electronic Monitoring and close supervision by a probation officer. It can help offenders to maintain family relationships, keep working or actively seek work, attend training or rehabilitative programmes. Sentences may range in length from 14 days to 12 months.


Supervision is a rehabilitative community-based sentence that requires offenders to address the causes of their offending. Offenders can be sentenced to supervision for between six months and one year.

Extended supervision

Extended supervision is aimed at managing long-term risks posed by sex offenders or violent offenders in the community. An extended supervision order, imposed by the Court, allows the department to monitor such offenders for up to ten years following their prison sentence.

Intensive supervision

Intensive supervision is a rehabilitative community-based sentence that requires offenders to address the causes of their offending with intensive oversight from a probation officer. Offenders can be sentenced to intensive supervision for between six months and two years.

Community work

The sentence of community work requires offenders to do unpaid work in the community for non-profit organisations as a way of making up for their offending.

Community detention sentence

Community detention (CD) is a community-based sentence that requires the offender to comply with an Electronically Monitored curfew imposed by the court. Offenders can be sentenced to CD for up to six months. Curfews can total up to 84 hours per week. The minimum curfew period is two hours.

Post-release conditions

When an offender is released from prison they are required to comply with their standard and/or special conditions of release. These conditions are imposed by the New Zealand Parole Board. The conditions can be for six months or more.

Residential restrictions

Under the Parole Act 2002, the New Zealand Parole Board can impose special release conditions on an offender’s release. One of these conditions is residential restrictions requiring the offender to remain at a specified residence at all times or at times specified by the Board.

National certificate

Qualification listed on the National Qualifications Framework (NQF) administered by the New Zealand Qualification Authority (NZQA), composed of a prescribed number of unit standards and is a complete qualification.

Limited Credit Programme (LCP)

Qualification listed on the NQF administered by the NZQA, composed of a number of unit standards and is a pathway towards a National Certificate.

Modularised Training Programme (MTP)

Qualification not listed on the NQF administered by an Industry Training Organisation (ITO), composed of a number of unit standards and is a pathway towards a National Certificate.

Trade Ticket

Qualification underpinned by unit standards indicating trade currency and competency. Examples: 4711 Welding Ticket or Electrical Limited Regulation Ticket.

Driver Licence

Qualifications composed of unit standards authorising individuals to drive prescribed types of vehicles.

Health and Safety

Qualifications sanctioned by ITOs, underpinned by or containing unit standards. Examples are: First Aid, Grow Safe and Site Safe.

Internal services employment activity

Internal services activities include asset maintenance, catering, distribution of goods, grounds maintenance, laundry, manufacturing and sundry services.

Primary employment activity

Primary activities include farming, dairy and horticulture.

Timber employment activity

Timber activities include building refurbishment, forestry, joinery, milling, and timber processing.

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