Appendix - Terms and Definitions

Terms and Definitions


Using a standard point of reference to compare departmental efficiency, effectiveness and quality with other jurisdictions that have similar governance and correctional practices.
Bicultural Therapy Model A model of therapy involving Maori tohunga (a spiritual expert or healer) working alongside Department psychologists to treat offenders.
Breakout escape An escape from a secured prison area that breaches a physical barrier. This definition includes an escape where a prisoner has breached security measures, provided the prisoner has physically left the area contained by the outermost perimeter fence, or if there is no such fence, prison buildings, police cell, vehicle or court complex or other place of custodial control, or from an officer escort anywhere.
Community-based order

An order of parole, release on conditions, home detention or extended supervision.

Community-based sentence 

A sentence of supervision or community work.

Community Residential Centre An approved residential centre that operates programmes for offenders designed to identify and address the cause or causes of, or factors contributing to, their offending.
Community work A community-based sentence that requires offenders to do unpaid work in the community.
Criminogenic needs The factors (thoughts, emotions and behaviour) that are associated with offending and re-offending.
Criminogenic programmes

Programmes designed to address the range of factors that are associated with offending behaviours.

Custodial sentence

A sentence of imprisonment.

Extended supervision orders

Orders that allow the monitoring of some high-risk child-sex offenders for up to 10 years after their sentence or order finishes.

Fautua Pasefika This term describes a Pacific community leader with responsibility to provide advice and guidance.

A structured programme provided in specialist Young Offenders Units targeting criminogenic factors using cognitive-behavioural and social learning theory principles.

Home detention A community-based order that allows offenders to serve part of their prison sentence at home or at an approved place of residence. Offenders live at home under electronic surveillance and receive intensive supervision by a Probation Officer.

Indeterminate sentence

A sentence that does not have an expiry date, that is, currently life sentences and preventive detention.
Internal service self-sufficiency

Kitchen, laundry and cleaning work carried out as prisoner employment activities.


Kaitiaki are the group most closely associated to the land on which new Corrections facilities are being built.

Kaiwhakamana The kaiwhakamana visitor policy is a voluntary role giving kaumatua (elders) greater access to Maori prisoners so they can support Maori prisoners with rehabilitation and reintegration in returning to the community.
Kia Marama Special therapeutic unit at Rolleston Prison in Canterbury that delivers group-based treatment within a therapeutic environment for male prisoners with convictions for sexual offences against children.
Land-based activities Farming, forestry and horticulture carried out as prisoner employment activities.
Manufacturing activities Manufacturing activities, such as construction and asset maintenance, carried out as prisoner employment activities.
Maori Focus Unit A unit within a prison, which provides an environment and programmes that meet the specific psychological needs of Maori offenders, including preparation for their release. Maori focus units are constituted on tikanga Maori principles and operate within a tikanga Maori environment.
Maori therapeutic programmes

Specialist programmes substantively developed from a Maori perspective. They address offending-related needs.

New Zealand Parole Board The New Zealand Parole Board was established under the Parole Act 2002, and considers offenders for parole once they have reached their parole eligibility date. The Board is also responsible for considering applications for home detention.
Non-return from temporary release

Where a prisoner does not return to prison at the appointed time.

NZPARS New Zealand Prisoners' Aid and Rehabilitation Society.
Other escapes

Other escapes are defined as 'walk-aways' and 'escapes while under escort' (other than court-related).

Parole An offender is released by the New Zealand Parole Board from a term of imprisonment and is subject to standard conditions of monitoring by a Probation Officer and may be subject to special conditions of a reintegrative or rehabilitative type.
Preventive detention

An indefinite term of at least 10 years that may be imposed when an offender is convicted for certain sexual or violent offences. The offender must 21 years of age or over.

Pua Wananga

Focal point for the delivery of programmes and interventions at the Northland Regional Corrections Facility.

Recidivism Index An index, which quantifies the rate of re-offending of a specified group of offenders over a defined follow-up period (currently 12 and 24 months), following release from a custodial sentence or commencement of a community-based sentence.
Rehabilitation Quotient

Measures the effectiveness of rehabilitative and other interventions in reducing re-offending.

Reintegrative services

Programmes that are targeted at offenders and their families/whanau to assist offenders to reintegrate effectively back into the community and workforce on release from prison. These include programmes that address areas such as family functioning, social attitudes and life skills.

Reintegrative support services Community-based services that aim to increase wellbeing and self-reliance of offenders and their families/whanau by providing intensive integrated family/ whanau support for offenders returning to the community to parent children. This service is provided in Auckland and Christchurch.
Relapse Prevention Programme A group-based programme with content designed for open or rolling membership targeting those offenders who complete the medium intensity multiple needs criminogenic programme and the intensive criminogenic programme as well as those delivered in Violence Prevention Units and Maori Therapeutic Programmes.
Release on conditions Post-release conditions for offenders sentenced to a short term of imprisonment with conditions set by a sentencing judge.
Release-to-work programmes

An initiative that allows prisoners nearing their release date, and who meet certain eligibility criteria, to be temporarily released during the day to work.

Remand prisoner

An offender who has been charged with an offence and is being held in custody pending plea, trial or sentencing.

Responsivity/motivational Programme

Programmes that aim to enhance an offender's ability to participate in interventions. These programmes may target offenders' willingness to participate, learning style, culture, level of literacy and/or drug and alcohol status and includes the Tikanga Maori programme.

Short Motivational Programme

A structured four-session intervention delivered to individual prisoners by a single facilitator using therapeutic techniques of motivational interviewing with the aim to engage offenders to move on to a therapy-based programme.

Structured Individual Programme

 The 30-hour Structured Individual Programme is a criminogenic programme designed to target offenders with defi ned criminogenic needs who are not able to attend a group-based criminogenic programme.


A community-based sentence requiring regular reporting to a Probation Officer, and possibly also including attendance at an appropriate programme dealing with the cause of offending.

Te Piriti Special therapeutic unit at Auckland Prison that delivers group-based treatment within a therapeutic environment for male prisoners with convictions for sexual offences against children.
Tikanga Maori Maori customs.