Appendix - Terms and Definitions


Using a standard point of reference to compare departmental performance, in terms of efficiency, effectiveness and quality, with other jurisdictions that have similar governance and correctional practices.

Bicultural therapy model
A model of therapy involving Maori tohunga (a spiritual expert or healer) working alongside Department psychologists to treat offenders.

Breakout escape
An escape where an inmate has breached security measures and the inmate has physically left the area contained by the outermost perimeter fence or, if there is no such fence, prison buildings, police cell, vehicle or court complex or other place of custodial control, or from an officer escort anywhere.

Community-based order
An order of parole, release on conditions, home detention or extended supervision.

Community-based sentence
A sentence of supervision or community work.

Community residential centre
An approved residential centre that operates programmes for offenders designed to identify and address the cause or causes of, or factors contributing to, their offending.

Community work
A community-based sentence that requires offenders to do unpaid work in the community.

Criminogenic needs
The factors (thoughts, emotions and behaviour) that are associated with offending and re-offending.

Criminogenic programmes
Programmes designed to address the range of factors that are associated with offending behaviours.

Custodial sentence
A sentence of imprisonment.

A treatment programme provided in specialist young offenders units for young people with anti-social behavioural problems.

Extended supervision orders
Orders that allow the monitoring of some high-risk sex offenders for up to 10 years after their sentence or order finishes.

Fautua Pasefika
This term describes a Pacific community leader with responsibility to provide advice and guidance.

Home detention
A community-based order that allows offenders to serve part of their prison sentence at home or at an approved place of residence. Offenders live at home under electronic surveillance and receive intensive supervision by a Probation Officer.

Indeterminate sentence
A sentence that does not have an expiry date, that is, currently life sentences and preventive detention.

Sustainable development categories
The broad areas, or groupings, of economic, environmental, or social issues of concern to stakeholders (that is, labour practices, human rights and direct economic impacts).

Sustainable development aspects
The general types of information that are related to a specific category (that is, energy, employment, health and safety, and indigenous rights).

A measure of performance, either qualitative or quantitative.

Internal service self-sufficiency
Kitchen, laundry and cleaning work carried out as inmate employment activities.

Kaitiaki are the group most closely associated to the land on which new Corrections facilities are being built.

A voluntary role giving kaumatua (elders) greater access to Maori inmates so they can support Maori inmates with rehabilitation and reintegration.

Kia Marama
Special therapeutic unit at Rolleston Prison in Canterbury that delivers groupbased treatment within a therapeutic environment for male inmates with convictions for sexual offences against children.

Land-based activities
Farming, forestry and horticulture carried out as inmate employment activities.

Making Our Drivers Safer (MODS)
A community-based programme for serious and high-risk driving offenders, specifically targeted at those who compulsively drive while disqualified and those who drive under the influence of drugs and/or alcohol.

Manufacturing activities
Manufacturing activities such as construction and asset maintenance carried out as inmate employment activities.

Maori Focus Unit
A unit within a prison, which provides an environment and programmes that meet the specific psychological needs of Maori offenders, including preparation for their release. Maori focus units are constituted on tikanga Maori principles and operate within a tikanga Maori environment.

Maori therapeutic programmes
Specialist programmes substantively developed from a Maori perspective. They address offending-related and reintegrative needs.

The M-PRO (or mixed programme) is one of a suite of 100-hour generic programmes aimed at dealing with offenders' needs.

New start
An offender starting a community-based sentence.

New Zealand Parole Board
The New Zealand Parole Board was established under the Parole Act 2002, and considers offenders for parole once they have reached their parole eligibility date. The Board is also responsible for considering applications for home detention.

Non-return from temporary release
Where an inmate does not return to prison at the appointed time following temporary release.

New Zealand Prisoners' Aid and Rehabilitation Society.

Other escapes
Other escapes are defined as "walk-aways" and "escapes while under escort" (other than court-related).

An offender is released by the New Zealand Parole Board from a term of imprisonment and is subject to standard conditions of monitoring by a Probation Officer and may be subject to special conditions of a reintegrative or rehabilitative type.

Preventive detention
An indefinite term of at least 10 years that may be imposed when an offender is convicted for certain sexual or violent offences.

Post-release conditions
Offenders being released from prison on post-release conditions will have standard conditions (and may have special conditions) imposed upon them by the New Zealand Parole Board.

Pua Wananga
Focal point for the delivery of programmes and interventions at the Northland Region Corrections Facility.

Recidivism Index
An index, which quantifies the rate of re-offending of a specified group of offenders over a defined follow-up period (currently 12 and 24 months), following release from a custodial sentence or commencement of a community-based sentence.

Rehabilitation Quotient
Measures the effectiveness of rehabilitative and other interventions in reducing re-offending.

Reintegrative services
Programmes that are targeted at offenders and their families/whanau to assist offenders to reintegrate effectively back into the community and workforce on release from prison. These include programmes that address areas such as family functioning, social attitudes and life skills.

Reintegrative support services
Community-based services which aim to increase the wellbeing and self-reliance of offenders and their families/whanau by providing intensive integrated family/whanau support for offenders returning to the community.

Release on conditions
An offender released from a short term of imprisonment on conditions set by a sentencing judge.

Release-to-work programmes
An initiative which allows inmates nearing their release date, and who meet certain eligibility criteria, to be temporarily released during the day to work.

Remand inmate
An inmate who has been charged with an offence and is being held in custody pending plea, trial or sentencing.

Responsivity/motivational programmes
Programmes that aim to enhance an offender's ability to participate in interventions. These programmes may target offenders' willingness to participate, learning style, culture, level of literacy, and/or drug and alcohol status. These programmes include Straight Thinking and Tikanga Maori.

Saili Matagi
Saili Matagi is a programme for Pacific men serving sentences for violent offences and is aimed at assisting these inmates to identify and change the violent attitudes and behaviours that resulted in their violent offending.

Straight Thinking
The Straight Thinking programme is a 70-hour, group based programme. The aim of the programme is to develop interpersonal skills in self-control, problem solving, social perspective taking and critical reasoning.

Structured Individual Programmes
A programme designed to target offenders with defined criminogenic needs who are not able to attend a group-based criminogenic programme.

Structured Day
Structured Day is the means for promoting the constructive use of 90 percent of an inmate's unlock time in order to maximise the efficient management of custodial management requirements and activities.

A community-based sentence requiring regular reporting to a Probation Officer, and possibly also including attendance at an appropriate programme dealing with the cause of offending.

Te Piriti
Special therapeutic unit at Auckland Prison that delivers group-based treatment within a therapeutic environment for male inmates with convictions for sexual offences against children.

Tuakana/teina model
Mentoring relationships between older and younger youth.

Tikanga Maori
Maori customs.