Appropriation - Rehabilitation and Reintegration

This appropriation is limited to the provision of case management and interventions designed to address the underlying causes of criminal re-offending.


Corrections reduces re-offending by providing offenders with opportunities for rehabilitation and reintegration through five outputs: case management, rehabilitation, training and education, offender employment and reintegration. Providing these opportunities allows offenders to have the skills and support to lead law-abiding lives after the end of their sentences and orders.

Case management focuses on planning and managing a prisoner’s rehabilitation and reintegration needs, which are reflected in high quality offender plans for each individual.

Rehabilitation challenges behaviours that lead to offending. When appropriate programmes and pathways are made available and offenders are motivated to take part in them, there is a better chance that they will successfully reintegrate into the community at the end of their sentence or order.

Corrections provides training and education that supports offenders to address lifelong learning barriers and to gain recognised qualifications and employment experience.

Offender employment opportunities provided by Corrections look to develop work habits, experience, training and skills, increasing offenders’ chances for post-release employment.

Reintegration services managed by Corrections focus on creating pathways for people integrating back into the community, by assisting them to address employment, accommodation, living skills, health/well-being, community links and other reintegration needs.


The offender journey as it relates to rehabilitation and reintegration:

Infographic, 4 columns of boxes. First column, only one box, text

Corrections have developed targeted strategies to reduce re-offending:

  • tackling alcohol and drug abuse
  • more rehabilitation that works
  • interventions delivered by probation staff
  • education, job skills and working prisons
  • real jobs on release
  • partnering with iwi and community groups.
Case management

The process of case management encompasses the planning and management of a prisoner’s rehabilitation and reintegration needs, which are detailed in an individual offender plan.

Case managers work with offenders in custody to facilitate services and deliver active and caring support to prepare the offender to live an offence-free life and to ensure a successful transition to probation colleagues or directly into the community.

After creating an offender plan, the case managers then manage the plan proactively throughout the sentence to ensure the offender is able to complete the required interventions, often by assisting the offender to resolve barriers to rehabilitation or facilitating external services to meet their needs.


Corrections strives to break the cycle of re-offending by identifying and working with those who are most likely to re-offend.

Research has shown that re-offending is not reduced simply by incarcerating offenders, or by increasing the harshness of their sentences. Well-designed and delivered programmes can have a real effect on re-offending.

Corrections assesses each and every offender to provide programmes that are appropriate to their level of risk, rehabilitative needs and ability to be responsive to the programme. Programmes include motivation to change, cognitive-behavioural interventions and general skills.


Research also shows that people are less likely to re-offend if they have the right support around them, which helps to keep everyone safe. The key areas are employment, accommodation, education and training, skills for life and oranga and family/whanau/community relationships. Support can come from many people including family/whanau, community groups, counsellors, employers and Corrections staff.

Reintegration is not just for people leaving prison. People who have served sentences and orders in the community also need help to make a fresh start and play a positive role in their communities and families.

The Industry, Treatment and Learning (ITL) framework is also a key part of reducing re-offending. Corrections began piloting the framework as Working Prisons in 2012 and since then all Corrections-managed prisons have fully transitioned to the framework. ITL prisons engage eligible prisoners in a regular 40 hour work week to prepare them for release and reintegration; the 40 hours are made up of rehabilitation and reintegration, education and training, employment and other constructive activities.

Activity informationActual volumeActual volumeActual volumeActual volumeBudget volumeForecast volume
The number of offenders who have completed a rehabilitation programme      
- Prisoners-New for 20156,8378,3725,5499,000 - 9,500
- Community-based offenders-New for 20153,1073,6483,1344,000 - 4,500

Two pie graphs titled “Number of offenders participating in rehabilitation programmes”, one entitled Prison the other Community. Alcohol and Other Drug treatment Programmes – Prison 6413, Community 319. Medium intensity rehabilitation suite – Prison 1746, Community 2298. Tikanga Māori Programme – Prison 918, Community 1034. Individual Psychological Treatment Programme – Prison 524, Community 530. Parenting Programme – Prison 470. Special treatment unit – Prison 291. Young Offenders Programme – Community 88. Domestic Violence Programme – Community 2056. Other programmes – Community 154.

In order to continue our drive towards achieving our reducing re-offending goal, Corrections has taken a more targeted approach to addressing our use of rehabilitation programmes. Through the RR25% Boost initiative, Corrections has focused on increasing the number of short interventions to help more offenders, with the aim of improving their chances of living crime-free after completing their sentences and orders. Corrections has increased access to rehabilitation programmes and boosted participation in industries that lead to sustainable work. Corrections supports offenders and their families in the lead up to leaving prison, providing help to access ongoing treatment, rehabilitation, employment and housing.

The chart below demonstrates that the majority of offenders serving community-based sentences are serving sentences of one year or less. By increasing access to interventions in our largest cohort, Corrections is able to help more offenders to address their rehabilitation needs.

The initiative to lift participation rates has raised the number of prisoners who have completed rehabilitation programmes by 22% in 2015/16 to 8,372, up from 6,837 in 2014/15. Similarly, the number of community-based offenders who complete a rehabilitation programme has risen by 17% to 3,648 in 2015/16, up from 3,107 in 2014/15.

The cost associated with the RR25% Boost initiative has been absorbed within our 2015/16 baseline.

Bar graph titled “Number of offenders by length and sentence type as at 30 June 2016”. 6 months or less: Prison 184, Community sentences 1663. >6 months to 1 year: Prison 377, Community sentences 8138. >1 to 2 years: Prison 727, Community sentences 1379. >2 to 3 years: Prison 1244. >3 to 5 years: Prison 1154. >5 years: Prison 2166. Indeterminate: Prison 820.

Case management
Assessment of performanceActual standardActual standardActual standardActual standardBudget standardBudget standard
The percentage of prisoners entitled to receive an offender plan that received one598%99%98%98%95%N/A#
The proportion of prisoners entitled to receive an offender plan that received one within Practice framework timelines5--New for 201693%85%90%

Although there has been an increase in the prison population, Corrections have continued to exceed the performance target in our delivery of offender plans. Offender plans provide the basis for managing and monitoring an offender’s needs. Offender plans for remand prisoners focus on reintegration needs, such as accommodation or community support. When an offender follows an offender plan, Corrections are better able to identify and monitor their evolving combination of needs.

Rehabilitation and Reintegration
Assessment of performanceActual standardActual standardActual standardActual standardBudget standardBudget standard
The percentage of offenders who start and complete a rehabilitation programme:      
- Prisoners86%85%86%81% 85% 85%
- Community-based offenders63%63%59%57% 65% 65%
The total number of qualifications achieved by prisoners while in prison63,1603,8583,698 4,628 4,240 N/A
The average number of hours engaged in industry and learning activities per prisoner--New for 2016 30 30 - 32 N/A
The number of prisoners who start reintegration services--New for 2016 3,2584,3003,500

There has been a significant increase in the number of offenders (prisoner and community-based) who have completed a rehabilitation programme this year compared to 2014/15. This uplift in the number of completions is due to increased access to rehabilitation programmes as a result of the RR25% Boost initiative.

Notwithstanding the increase in the number of offenders completing a rehabilitation programme, there has been a marginal decrease in the percentage of programme completions. The completion rates are expected to improve as the programme was recalibrated to cope with the significant increase in the number of offenders attending rehabilitation programmes.

Corrections is committed to increasing the level of literacy, education and employment training for prisoners and offenders. As a result, more people will have the skills and experience that employers require and will have a better chance of obtaining work. Offenders who are able to work upon release reduce their overall risk of re-offending.

The following table shows that the number of qualifications achieved by prisoners continues to exceed expectations.

LevelType2015 Actual2016 ActualChange %
 Trade Ticket2412 
 National Certificate or equivalent-3 
 Other (Welding qualification test)524 
Qualifications achieved 121100(17%)
 National Certificate or equivalent159360 
Qualifications achieved 23243286%
LEVEL TWODriver Licence229159 
 LCP / MTP1,1121,152 
 National Certificate or equivalent869963 
 Health and Safety453584 
 Trade Ticket29- 
Qualifications achieved 2,6922,8586%
 National Certificate or equivalent167217 
Qualifications achieved 6451,21689%
LEVEL FOURNational Certificate or equivalent822 
Qualifications achieved 822175%
TOTAL 3,6984,62825%

For the year ended 30 June 2016

 Actual $000Actual $000Budget (unaudited) $000Supp. estimates (unaudited) $000Forecast* (unaudited) $000
Total revenue174,014169,194192,343173,982182,187
Total expenses169,122176,308192,343180,300182,187
Net (deficit) / surplus4,892(7,114)**-(6,318) **-

* Forecast financial statements have been prepared using Budget Economic Fiscal Update (BEFU) 2016.

** Corrections obtained Cabinet approval to run an output class deficit for 2016 as a result of an expected shortfall in offender employment activity revenue, with the exception that sufficient future surpluses will be retained to cover the deficit.

The total expense for this appropriation was $176.3 million. Direct expenses accounted for 74% of total expenses in 2016, which included approximately $82.1 million on the provision of intervention programmes and case management, $30.3 million on offender employment activities, and $18.1 million on psychological services.

Refer to the chart below for the composition of total expenditure by major expense category.

Pie graph titled “Composition of total rehabilitation and reintegration services expenses”. Direct personnel costs $57.9m, 33%. Direct offender costs $50.9m, 29%. Other direct costs (includes offender employment activity costs) $21.7m, 12%. IT costs $7.5m, 4%. Property costs $8.7m, 5%. Other overheads $29.6m, 17%.

Actual expenditure was $7.2 million higher than 2015 actuals, mainly due to:

  • increased contract costs of $12.2 million relating to a full year of operations at ASCF which opened in May 2015 (contract expenditure being split between custodial and rehabilitation)
  • increased programme facilitator costs to support the RR25% Boost initiative, partly offset by
  • a reduction in offender employment activity costs of $5.5m following the sale of the Tongariro/Rangipo forest crop at 30 June 2015.

Actual expenditure was lower than Supp. estimates, mainly reflecting pre-approved in-principle expense transfers for the Out of Gate programme and the Alcohol and Other Drug Aftercare initiative.

Other revenue mainly comprises sale of goods relating to offender employment activities, over half of which relates to farming.

Other revenue was $16.2 million lower than 2015 actuals, mainly due to the sale of the Tongariro/Rangipo forest crop and land at 30 June 2015, and a continued reduction in milk prices.

Other revenue was slightly lower than Supp. estimates mainly due to timing of livestock sales.

Refer to the chart below for the composition of other revenue.

Pie graph titled “Composition of rehabilitation and reintegration other revenue”. Farming – livestock $8.2m, 35%. Farming – milk $3.8m, 17%. Distribution $5.2m, 23%. Trade activities $3.5m, 15%. Other offender employment activities $1.3m, 6%. Dividend revenue $0.4m, 2%. Other $0.6m, 2%.

# This measure has been excluded from the 2016/17 budget and will not be reported in this section in 2017.

5 Corrections Act 2004 – Section 51 Management Plans. This section applied to every prisoner who is:

  • sentenced to imprisonment for a term of more than two months, or
  • in custody for a continuous period of more than two months on remand.

† This measure has been excluded from the 2016/17 budget and will not be reported in this section in 2017.

6 Includes:

  • New Zealand Qualifications Framework (NZQF) National Certificates and other NZQF Certificates levels 2, 3 or above as a completed qualification
  • Limited Credit Programmes and Modularised Training Programmes
  • Trade Tickets (industry specific license to practice e.g. welding)
  • Vocational driver licenses
  • Health and Safety qualification accredited by Industry Training Organizations (ITOs), e.g. First Aid, Grow Safe and Site Safe
  • NCEA qualifications completed while in prison.

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